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Appendix ii§e1: Weak Verbs

Weak verbs in germanic tend to be roughly defined as those verbs taking a "dental" ending, excluding the preterite-present verbs.  There is a misconception that this group consists only of "regular" verbs, but that is another story.

The germanic weak verbs fall into four categories: Those ending in -jan (class I), -on (class II), -an (class III), and -nan (class IV). [what about -en?]  In northeadish most of these classes have fallen together, and class 1 is differentiated from the other classes only in that it undergoes i-umlaut in the present tenses.
  1. Class I
Class I weak verbs, sometimes known as -jan verbs, are conjugated as follows:
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
racþa ræcþa ræca ræca
  (rakjan)
þū 
racþast ræcþast ræcst ræcast ræc
 inf. ræcɴ h/s 
racþa ræcþa ræcaðþ ræca
 ppr. ræcɴþ vīt 
racþa ræcþma ræca ræcma ræca
 ppt. racþ jȳt 
racþatþ ræcþatþ ræcatþ ræcatþ ræcatþ
 
vīr 
racþм ræcþм ræcм ræcм ræcм
 
jȳr 
racþaðþ ræcþaðþ ræcaðþ ræcaðþ ræcaðþ
 
sīr 
racþɴþ ræcþɴþ ræcɴþ ræcɴþ

Note that -jan verbs show i-mutation in the past subjunctive as well as the present and infinitive paradigms. Please note that class I verbs are indicated in the reform alphabet by ending in -en instead of -an.
  1. Class II
Class II, or -ōn verbs, are usually derived from a noun or adjective.  Various phœnetic and morphosyntactic changes throughout the centuries have made them indistinguishable from Class III weak verbs.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
bevða bevða beva beva
  (bibōn) þū 
bevðast bevðast bevast bevast bevf
 inf. bevɴ h/s 
bevða bevða bevaðþ beva
 ppr. bevɴþ vīt 
bevða bevðama beva bevma beva
 ppt. bevaðþ
jȳt 
bevðatþ bevðatþ bevatþ bevatþ bevatþ
 
vīr 
bevðм bevðм bevм bevм bevм
 
jȳr 
bevðaðþ bevðaðþ bevaðþ bevaðþ bevaðþ
 
sīr 
bevðɴþ bevðɴþ bevɴþ bevɴþ

  1. Class III
Class III weak verbs, or -an verbs, are the most common weak verbs, though many of them have been assimilated into strong verb classes.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
trunða trunða truna truna
  (turnan)
þū 
trunðast trunðast trunst trunast trun
 inf. trunɴ h/s 
trunða trunða trunðþ truna
 ppr. trunɴþ vīt 
trunða trunðma truna trunama truna
 ppt. trunþ jȳt 
trunðatþ trunðatþ truntþ trunatþ truntþ
 
vīr 
trunðм trunðм trunм trunм trunм
 
jȳr 
trunðaðþ trunðaðþ trunðþ trunaðþ trunðþ
 
sīr 
trunðɴþ trunðɴþ trunɴþ trunɴþ

Class III verbs do not show any sign of i-mutation.
  1. Class IV
Class IV weak verbs, or -nōn/-njan verbs, are ostensibly the same as Class I or II verbs, but with -n added to the root. Many of this type of verbs are strong verbs.

 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
tǣcɴða tǣcɴða tǣcna tǣcna
  (taiknjan)
þū 
tǣcɴðast tǣcɴðast tǣcnast, tǣcɴst tǣcnast tǣcɴ
 inf. tǣcnɴ h/s 
tǣcɴða tǣcɴða tǣcnaðþ, tǣcɴþ tǣcna
 ppr. tǣcnɴþ vīt 
tǣcɴða tǣcɴðma tǣcna tǣcnama tǣcna
 ppt. tǣcnðþ jȳt 
tǣcɴðatþ tǣcɴðatþ tǣcnatþ, tǣcɴtþ tǣcnatþ tǣcnatþ, tǣcɴtþ
 
vīr 
tǣcɴðм tǣcɴðм tǣcnм tǣcnм tǣcnм
 
jȳr 
tǣcɴðaðþ tǣcɴðaðþ tǣcnaðþ, tǣcɴþ tǣcnaðþ tǣcnaðþ, tǣcɴþ
 
sīr 
tǣcɴðɴþ tǣcɴðɴþ tǣcnɴþ tǣcnɴþ

  1. Class V
Class V weak verbs, or -ǣn verbs, have become indistinguishable from Class I verbs.