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Appendix ii§e2: Strong Verbs

The strong verbs are those which do not take a dental ending, and which may undergo ablaut in some of the principle parts.  In most germanic languages, the strong verb paradigms are gradually being replaced by weak ones, although in Northeadish the opposite seems to be happening, and many weak verbs are becoming strong by assimilation.

Classes I - V are really just variations on a single theme; Class VI contains a completely separate ablaut pattern; Class VII verbs have reduplication in the preterite and may or may not contain ablaut.
  1. Class I
The first five classes are based on verbs with IE e in the root.  In Class I, e is followed by i/j, becomes o in the preterite singular, and becomes Ø (zero) in the preterite plural and past participle; i.e. the four principle parts are: -ei- -oi- -i- -i-.  This translates into proto-germanic as -ei- -ai- -i- -i- and then northeadish as -ī- -ǣ- -e- -e-.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
scrǣðþ screða
scrīða
scrīða

 
þū 
scrǣst screðast
scrīst
scrīðast
scrīðþ
 inf. scrīðɴ h/s 
scrǣðþ screða
scrīðþ
scrīða

 ppr. scrīðɴþ vīt 
screða screðma
scrīða
scrīðma
scrīða
 ppt. screðɴ jȳt 
screðatþ screðatþ
scrīðatþ
scrīðatþ scrīðatþ
 
vīr 
screðм screðм scrīðм scrīðм scrīðм
 
jȳr 
screðþ screðaðþ
scrīðþ
scrīðaðþ scrīðþ
 
sīr 
screðɴþ screðɴþ scrīðɴþ scrīðɴþ

There is a subgroup of Class I verbs in which the primary vowel is followed by a w or a labiovelar consonant in which the long vowels are shortened due to the Long Diphthong Shortening Before Glides rule, and hence he paradigm becomes leveled out as -e- -æ- -u- -e-.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
næʒ nʒa
neʒa
neʒa

 
þū 
næʒast nʒast
neʒast
neʒast
neʒ
 inf. neʒɴ h/s 
næʒ nʒa
neʒaðþ
neʒa

 ppr. neʒɴþ vīt 
nuʒa nʒama
neʒa
neʒama
neʒa
 ppt. neʒɴ jȳt 
nuʒatþ nʒatþ
neʒatþ
neʒatþ neʒatþ
 
vīr 
nuʒм nʒм neʒм neʒм neʒм
 
jȳr 
nuʒaðþ nʒaðþ
neʒaðþ
neʒaðþ neʒaðþ
 
sīr 
nuʒɴþ nʒɴþ neʒɴþ neʒɴþ
  1. Class II
In Class II, e is followed by u/w, becomes o in the preterite singular, and becomes Ø (zero) in the preterite plural and past participle; i.e. the four principle parts are: -eu- -ou- -u- -u-.  This translates into proto-germanic as -eu- -au- -u- -u- and then northeadish as -ȳ- -ō- -u- -u-.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
bōðþ bða
bȳða
bȳða

 
þū 
bōst bðast
bȳst
bȳðast
bȳð
 inf. bȳðɴ h/s 
bōðþ bða
bȳðþ
bȳða

 ppr. bȳðɴþ vīt 
buða bðma
bȳða
bȳðma
bȳða
 ppt. buðɴ jȳt 
buðatþ bðatþ
bȳðatþ
bȳðatþ bȳðatþ
 
vīr 
buðм bðм bȳðм bȳðм bȳðм
 
jȳr 
buðþ bðaðþ
bȳðþ
bȳðaðþ bȳðþ
 
sīr 
buðɴþ bðɴþ bȳðɴþ bȳðɴþ

There is a subgroup of Class II verbs which contain a w or a labiovelar consonant and the verb is reinterpreted in the manner of a Class III verb, and hence the paradigm becomes leveled out as -e- -æ- -u- -e-.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
blaʒ blʒa
bleʒa
bleʒa

 
þū 
blaʒast blʒast
bleʒast
bleʒast
bleʒ
 inf. bleʒɴ h/s 
blaʒ blʒa
bleʒaðþ
bleʒa

 ppr. bleʒɴþ vīt 
bluʒa blʒama
bleʒa
bleʒama
bleʒa
 ppt. bleʒɴ jȳt 
bluʒatþ blʒatþ
bleʒatþ
bleʒatþ bleʒatþ
 
vīr 
bluʒм blʒм bleʒм bleʒм bleʒм
 
jȳr 
bluʒaðþ blʒaðþ
bleʒaðþ
bleʒaðþ bleʒaðþ
 
sīr 
bluʒɴþ blʒɴþ bleʒɴþ bleʒɴþ
  1. Class III
In Class III, e stand alone with a sonorant and a consonant (i.e. e is preceded or followed by a sonorant and is followed by a consonant), becomes o in the preterite singular, and becomes Ø (zero) in the preterite plural and past participle; i.e. the four principal parts are: -e- -o- -Ø- -Ø-.  This translates into proto-germanic as -e- -a- -u- -u- and then remains in northeadish as -e- -a- -u- -u-.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
banðþ bnða
benða
benða

 
þū 
banst bnðast
benst
benðast
benðþ
 inf. benðɴ h/s 
banðþ bnða
benðþ
benða

 ppr. benðɴþ vīt 
bunða bnðama
benða
benðama
benða
 ppt. bunðɴ jȳt 
bunðatþ bnðatþ
benðatþ
benðatþ benðatþ
 
vīr 
bunðм bnðм benðм benðм benðм
 
jȳr 
bunðþ bnðaðþ
benðþ
benðaðþ benðþ
 
sīr 
bunðɴþ bnðɴþ benðɴþ benðɴþ
  1. Class IV
In Class IV, e stand alone followed by a single sonorant, becomes o in the preterite singular,  becomes ē in the preterite plural, and Ø (zero) in the past participle; i.e. the four principal parts are: -e- -o- -ē- -Ø-.  This translates into proto-germanic as -e- -a- -ē- -u- and then remains in northeadish as -e- -a- -ā- -u-.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
qal qǣla
qela
qela

 
þū 
qalst qǣlast
qelst
qelast
qel
 inf. qeln h/s 
qal qǣla
qelðþ
qela

 ppr. qelnðþ vīt 
qāla qǣlma
qela
qelma
qela
 ppt. quln jȳt 
qāltþ qǣltþ
qeltþ
qeltþ qeltþ
 
vīr 
qālm qǣlm qelm qelm qelm
 
jȳr 
qālðþ qǣlðþ
qelðþ
qelðþ qelðþ
 
sīr 
qālnðþ qǣlnðþ qelnðþ qelnðþ
  1. Class V
In Class V, e stands alone followed by a single obstruent, becomes o in the preterite singular, becomes ē in the preterite plural, and back to e in the past participle; i.e. the four principal parts are: -e- -o- -ē- -e-.  This translates into proto-germanic as -e- -a- -ē- -e- and then remains in northeadish as -e- -a- -ā- -e-.

 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
gavf gǣva
geva
geva

 
þū 
gafst gǣvast
gefst
gevast
gevf
 inf. ge h/s 
gavf gǣva
ge
geva

 ppr. gevɴðþ vīt 
gāva gǣvma
geva
gevma
geva
 ppt. ge jȳt 
gāftþ gǣvatþ
geftþ
gevatþ geftþ
 
vīr 
gā gǣ ge ge ge
 
jȳr 
gāvaðþ gǣvaðþ
gevaðþ
gevaðþ gevaðþ
 
sīr 
gāvɴþ gǣvɴþ gevɴþ gevɴþ

  1. Class VI
Class VI is an entireley different paradigm based on an ablaut of o as the root vowel.  It becomes ō (or ā?) in the preterite, and returns to a in the past participle; i.e. the four principal parts are: -o- -ō- -ō- -o- or -o- -ā- -ā- -o-.  This translates into proto-germanic as -a- -ō- -ō- -a- and then remains in northeadish as -a- -ō- -ō- -a-.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
scōp scœ̄pa
scapa
scapa

 
þū 
scōpst scœ̄past
scæpst
scapast
scæp
 inf. scaðɴ h/s 
scōp scœ̄pa
scæ
scapa

 ppr. scaðɴþ vīt 
scōpa scœ̄pma
scapa
scapma
scapa
 ppt. scaðɴ jȳt 
scōptþ scœ̄patþ
scaptþ
scapatþ scapatþ
 
vīr 
scō scœ̄ sca sca sca
 
jȳr 
scō scœ̄paðþ
sca
scapaðþ sca
 
sīr 
scōpɴþ scœ̄pɴþ scapɴþ scapɴþ
  1. Class VII
Class VII may or may follow any of the above or other ablaut patterns, or none at all, but is distinguished by the presence of reduplication; that is, the first letter or letters are repeated to form the preterite. Class VII verbs fall mainly into five distinct categories: those with their primary vowel in a, ai, au, ē, and ō. Some of these have subgroups that also undergo ablaut of the primary verb.  In northeadish, reduplication eventually disappears, au and ō collapse into one category (via the au-to-ō rule), and all but three of the verbs in a are assimilated into class VI, leaving four distinct groups: (a) -a- -æ- -æ- -a-, (ai) -ǣ- -ī- -ī- -ǣ-, (ē) -ā- -ew- -ew- -ā-, and (au/ō) -ō- -ew- -ew- -ō-.

In most germanic languages, the verb gangan developed a long and short form (gangan and gēn), though in northeadish it developed three: gaŋɴ, gāhɴ, and gān.  The class VII verbs fanhan (fāhɴ) and hanhan (hāhɴ) then followed the example of gāhɴ by assimilation, held together by the magic of Verner’s Law.  All other class VII verbs in a later became weak and/or assimilated into class VI.  Please note that the paradigm of gāhɴ (see) contains additional paradigms that are not to be found in fāhɴ or hāhɴ.
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
hæŋ hæŋa hāha hāha
 
þū 
hæŋst hæŋast hǣhst hāhast hǣh
 inf. hā h/s 
hæŋ hæŋa hǣ hāha
 ppr. hāhɴþ vīt 
hæŋa hæŋma hāha hāhma hāha
 ppt. hā jȳt 
hæŋtþ hæŋtþ hāhtþ hāhatþ hāhtþ
 
vīr 
hæŋм hæŋм hā hā hā
 
jȳr 
hæŋðþ hæŋðþ hā hāhaðþ hā
 
sīr 
hæŋɴþ hæŋɴþ hāhɴþ hāhɴþ

Verbs in ai eventually developed the following paradigm:
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
hīt hīta hǣta hǣta
 
þū 
hīst hītast hǣst hǣtast hǣt
 inf. hǣ h/s 
hīt hīta hǣ hǣta
 ppr. hǣtɴþ vīt 
hīta hītma hǣta hǣtma hǣta
 ppt. hǣ jȳt 
hī hītatþ hǣ hǣtatþ hǣ
 
vīr 
hī hī hǣ hǣ hǣ
 
jȳr 
hī hītaðþ hǣ hǣtaðþ hǣ
 
sīr 
hītɴþ hītɴþ hǣtɴþ hǣtɴþ

Verbs in ē, after the ē > ā change, developed the following paradigm:
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
lewt lewta lāta lāta
 
þū 
lewst lewtast lǣst lātast lǣt
 inf. lā h/s 
lewt lewta lǣ lāta
 ppr. lātɴþ vīt 
lewta lewtma lāta lātma lāta
 ppt. lā jȳt 
lew lewtatþ lā lātatþ lā
 
vīr 
lew lew lā lā lā
 
jȳr 
lew lewtaðþ lā lātaðþ lā
 
sīr 
lewtɴþ lewtɴþ lātɴþ lātɴþ

Finally, verbs in au and ō developed as follows:
 

pret. conj.
pres.
subj. imper.
 
ec 
blewt blewta blōta blōta
 
þū 
blewst blewtast blœ̄st blōtast blœ̄t
 inf. blō h/s 
blewt blewta blœ̄ blōta
 ppr. blōtɴþ vīt 
blewta blewtma blōta blōtma blōta
 ppt. blō jȳt 
blew blewtatþ blō blōtatþ blō
 
vīr 
blew blew blō blō blō
 
jȳr 
blew blewtaðþ blō blōtaðþ blō
 
sīr 
blewtɴþ blewtɴþ blōtɴþ blōtɴþ
  1. Aorist-Presents
The so-called aorist-present verbs may fall into any of the above classes, but contain Ø-grade in the present.  Most of these have been assimilated into their respective classes (such as deigʰonom > dØigʰonom > dØigan > dīgɴ, not degɴ); others have become weak. (Compare assimilated brȳcɴ < brØūkan < bʰrØukʰonom < bʰreukʰonom, versus weak brūcɴ.)