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Appendix iv: Abbreviations and Contraxions

  1. Symbols
There are a few abbreviations used in northeadish. Some of these abbreviations were used extensively in many germanic languages of the literary age, particularly in old english and old norse/old icelandic.

    1. may be used as an abbreviation for all of the coordinate conjunxions ‘iah,’ ‘ōc,’ and ‘ænðþ.’ It is ostensibly the northeadish (as well as old norse, old english, &c) version of the ampersand (&).
    2. is the abbreviation for the definite article, no matter what its case or form. It may also be used to abbreviate most relative pronouns. It may be followed by letters indicating case, as in м or ʀ.  It may also be used in contraxions like en (enðʀ, enðм, &c - see below).
    3. is commonly used as the abbreviation for ‘þæt’ (as a subordinate conjunxion), though is used largely in its stead.
    4. is a combination of 1 and 3, above.  It represents ‘ænþæt’ (itself a contraxion of ænðþ and þæt).
    5. is the abbreviation for ‘het,’ whether it refers to the 3rd person neuter pronoun or the relative pronoun.
    6. An apostrophe above a letter generally indicates an ending with the letters r or ʀ.  This is sometimes also used to indicate the plural of a nominative noun.
      1. for ‘her’ or ‘hīr.’
      2. for ‘ƕer’ or ‘ƕīr.’
      3. for ‘þēr’ or ‘þīr.’
  1. Contraxions
Some contraxions also exist which are worth mentioning here. 
    1. The final -a of many words can be elided in many situations. No apostrophe is used to mark its absence as often happens in english.
      1. As the first person singular present inflexion of verbs, final a is always elided when followed by the first person singular pronoun, e.g. ‘ec fara,’ but ‘far ec.’
    2. When the definite or indefinite articles are used with certain prepositions, they are joined.   The initial þ of the definite article becomes voiced or omitted completely, much like the german contraxions zum, zur, ins, &c, and the initial ǣ of the indefinite article is usually elided.  These can be a bit tricky.  Many of them are optional, but some contraxions with the definite article are not, as indicated.
      1. tel is always followed by the dative case.  Contractions with tel and the definite article are not optional.
        1. tel þм → telðм or telm
        2. tel þʀ → telðʀ
        3. tel ǣnм → telnм
        4. tel ǣnʀ → telnʀ
      2. en may be followed by either the dative or accusative case.
        1. en þм → enðм or em
        2. en þʀ → enðʀ
        3. en ǣnм → enм or em.
        4. en ǣnʀ → enʀ
        5. en þet → enðet
        6. en þa → enða
        7. en þɴ → enðɴ