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A a


A is the first letter of the northeadish standard literary alphabet.  Its phœnetic value may be either [a] or [ə] (see appdx i§a). Its eastheadish equivalent, a, is also the first letter of the eastheadish alphabet, though this only represents the [a] phœneme, as [ə] is represented by the thirtieth letter, F.  Northeadish a normally comes from the ProtoGermanic letter a, or from PGmc e after a-mutation.  It has an i-mutation of æ.

-a [-a] pfx.w.m. -er, -or. Masuline agentive suffix for verbs. All nouns ending in -a are masculine. The feminine form is -(a)stra (see). [-jōn (w.m.)]

ac
[ak] cjx. but, yet, however, still. Synonyms: eðþ. [ake]

acɴ
[akan] v.st6.t. to drive, to blow (snow, leaves, wind, &c). [akan - ōk - ōkum - akana]

acɴ
[akan] v.wk3.i. to ache, to hurt. Conjugation is weak. Synonyms: smertɴ. [akan - ahta - ahtum - ahta]

acsʌ
[aksal] n.st.n. axle. [aǥslō (st.f.)]

aqs
[awks] n.st.n. axe. [akwesī, akusī (w.f.)]

aðʌ
[aðal] adj. noble, of noble birth. [aþala]

aðʌdм
[aðaldam] n.w.n. nobility. [aðʌ + dм]

-ag
[-ag, -eg] adj.sfx. -y, -ish. An adjectival suffix usually applied to nouns, though it may also be applied to verbs and adjectives.  Adverbial form is -ega. This suffix causes i-umlaut to occur in the primary vowel. [-Vga < IE -Vk]

ag
[ag] n.st.n. awe, terror, horror. [agiz (st.m.)]

aʒʌ
[awgul] n.w.n. fork. Synonyms: fruc. [aǥwalaz (st.m.)]

aʒustmānðþ
[awgustmánþ] n.w.m. august. See appdx. vi for notes. [aʒust ( < lat. august) + mānðþ]

aht
[aht] num. eight. [ahtau]

ahta
[ahta] num. =aht.

ahtacþ
[ahtakþ] adj. eightieth. [ahtau-tigunþa]

ahtag
[ahtag] num. eighty. [ahtau-tigu(n)]

ahtamānðþ
[ahtamánþ] n.w.m. october. See appdx. vi for notes. [ahta + mānðþ]

ahtatehɴ [ahtatehan] num. eighteen. [ahtau-tehun]

ahtatehɴþ
[ahtatehanþ] adj. eighteenth. [ahtau-tehunda]

ahtþ
[ahtþ] adj. eighth. [ahtuda]

aƕa
[awhwa] n.st.f. water. Synonyms: vatʀ, lag. While vatʀ is used in all senses of hydrogen dioxide, aƕa and lag are used in the sense of bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, seas, ponds, &c. [ahwō (st.f.)]

al
[al] adj. all. [al(n)a]

al
[al] n.w.n. ale, beer. Synonyms: bȳr. The final –þ is dropped in the nominative and accusative singular per the Coronal Consonant Deletion rule, in which a non-strident coronal consonant [t, þ, d, ð] is deleted word-finally when preceded by an unstressed vowel. [aluþ (w.n.)]

ala
[ala] prn. everyone, everybody. This is the plural declension of al (see). Declines as an adjective in the plural (see al).

alðþ
[alþ] adj. old. Refers specifically to people. Synonyms: fren, gamʌ. [alþa]

alðþvetscap
[alþvetskap] n.w.n. gerontology. [alðþ + vetscap]

alǣn
[alén] adj. alone. [al+ǣn]

alm
[alm] n.w.f. elm (tree), Ulmus spp. [almaz (st.m.)]

aln
[al(a)n] v.st.6.t. to feed, to nourish. Synonyms: fœ̄dɴ. [alan - ōl - ōlum - alana]

alsȳr
[alsýr] n.w.n. malt vinegar. Synonyms: maltsȳr. [al + sȳr]

alswā
[alswá] prp. as. See swā. [al + swā]

alt
[alt] prn. all, everything. This is the neuter singular declension of al. Declines as an adjective.

altīd
[altíd] adv. always, ever, forever. [al + tīd.]

alvf
[alf] n.st.m. elf. [alƀaz (st.m.)]

ama
[ama] n.st.f. paternal grandmother. See appdx. v. [ammōn (w.f.)]

amba
[amba] n.w.n. abdomen, stomach, belly. Synonyms: vanst. [ambōn (w.n.)]

ameʒðʌ
[amewgðal] n.w.n. almond. [from Grk. αμυγδαλη, possibly influenced by the word maʒ]

an-
[an-] pfx. on, a-. [an- < IE ano]

an
[an] prp. on, on the side of. See ūp for usage. [ana]

an
[an] n.st.m. maternal grandfather. See appdx. v. [anōn (w.m.)]

ana
[ana] n.st.f. maternal grandmother. See appdx. v. [an(n)ōn (w.f.)]

an·benðɴ
[anbenðan] v.st3.t. to tie on, to bind, to fasten, to tether. Class 3 strong verb: conj. like benðɴ. [an + benðɴ, ana-bendan]

an·clǣðnasc
(clǣðɴ sec an) [ankléðnask (kléðan sek an)] v.wk1.r. to get dressed, to put on clothes. Weak irregular: conj. like clǣðɴ. [an + clǣðɴ + sec, ana-klaiþ(j)an sek]

an·clǣðɴ
[ankléðan] v.wk1.t. to dress, to clothe. Weak irregular: conj. like clǣðɴ. [an + clǣðɴ, ana-klaiþ(j)an]

an·clīvɴ
[anklívan] v.st1.i. to cling to, to cleave onto. Class 1 strong verb: conj. like clīvɴ. [an + clīvɴ, ana-kleiban]

an·clᵫcɴ
[anklyken] v.wk1.t. to clutch onto, to grasp. Synonyms: angrīpɴ. [an + clᵫcɴ, ana-klukkjan]

anðм
[anðam] n.w.n. spirit, soul. Synonyms: brāðþ, gǣst, sewl. [anþam (w.n.) breath]

anðrɴ
[anðran] v.wk3.i. to change. [from anðʀ, anþaran]

anðʀ
[anðar] adj. other. [anþara]

anðʀ
[anðar] adj. second. [anþara]

an·faln
[anfal(a)n] v.st6.i. to fall onto. Conj. like faln. [an + faln, ana-fallan]

an·fāhɴ
[anfáhan] v.st7.t. to catch. Conj. like fāhɴ. [an + fāhɴ, ana-fanhan]

an·geln
[angel(a)n] v.st4.t. to yell at, to scream at. Conj. like geln. [an + geln, ana-gelan]

an·grīpɴ
[angrípan] v.st1.t. to grip, to grasp (onto). Conj. like grīpɴ. [an + grīpɴ, ana-greipan]

an·gȳʒɴ
[angýwgun] v.t. to look at, to watch. Conj. like gȳʒɴ. [an + gȳʒɴ]

an·hāhɴ
[anháhan] v.t. to hang upon. Class 7 strong verb: conj. like hāhɴ. [an + hāhɴ]

anmegɴ
[anmegan] adj. angry, mad, pissed off. [p.p. of anmīgɴ]
Hī var halðþ anmegnʀ. He was really angry.

an·mīgɴ
[anmígan] v.t. to anger, to piss off. Class 1 strong verb: conj. like mīgɴ. [an + mīgɴ]
Þat mīcþ mec an. That pisses me off.

an·nemɴ
[anneman] v.t. to accept, to take on (as a challenge, a project, &c.). Class 4 strong verb: conj. like nemɴ. Also antacɴ. [an + nemɴ]

anɴ
v.t. [anan] to breathe. Synonyms: brǣðɴ. Derivatives: īnanɴ, ūtanɴ. [anan]

ans [ans] n.st.n. god, deity. Synonyms: gūðþ. [ansuz (st.m.)]

an·scaʒɴ
[anskawgun] v.t. =scaʒɴ. Class 6 strong verb: conj. like scaʒɴ. [an + scaʒɴ]

ansprāc
[ansprák] n.w.n. speech, lecture. [an + sprāc]

an·sprecɴ
[ansprekan] v.t. to speak to, to lecture. Class 3 strong verb: conj. like sprecɴ. [an + sprecɴ]

an·stīgɴ
[anstígan] v.t. to climb onto, to board (a ship, a train, &c.), to mount. Class 1 strong verb: conj. like stīgɴ. [an + stīgɴ]

an·tacɴ
[antakan] v.t. to accept, to take on (a challenge, a project, &c.). Class 6 strong verb: conj. like tacɴ. Also annemɴ. [an + tacɴ]

antacӿ
[antakang] n.w.f. acceptance. [antac(ɴ) + ӿ]

antal
[antal] n.w.n. amount, total, count. [an + tal]

an·taln
[antal(a)n] v.t. to count. Class 6: conj. like taln. [an + taln]

an·treðɴ
[antreðan] v.t. to step on, to walk over, to tread (up)on. Class 3 strong verb: conj. like tredɴ. [an + treðɴ]

anþrah
[anþrah] n.st.m. duck, drake. Synonyms: ænd. [anuttrahhō (w.m.)]

aŋcʌ
[ankal] n.st.n. ankle. [ankula (st.m.)]

aŋqa
[ankwa] n.w.n. butter. Synonyms: smervf (see for notes). [ankwōn (w.m.)]

aŋʒa
[angwa] adj. narrow. [angwu]

apa
[apa] n.w.n. ape, monkey, primate. [apōn (w.m.)]

apʌ
[apal] n.st.n. apple. Derivatives: erðþapʌ. [apal(j)az (st.m.)]

apʌtreʒ
[apaltrewg] n.w.n. apple tree. [apʌ+ treʒ]

arabesc
[arabesk] adj. arabic, arabian. [lat. arabicus < arb. ʿarab]

arabesct treʒstǣn
[arabeskt trewgstén] n.w.n. benzoin, gum arabic, benjamin. “Arabic tree-stone.”

arg
[arg] adj.st. bad, ill; mean, wicked, cruel; dastardly, sneaky, cowardly. Synonyms: grem, sleht, slem, ᵫvʌ. [arga]

arƕa
[arhwa] n.w.n. arrow. [arhwō (st.f.)]

arƕacucʀ
[arhwakukar] n.w.n. quiver (of arrows). [arƕa + cucʀ]

arm
[arm] adj. poor. [arma]

arm
[arm] n.w.n. arm. [armaz (w.m.)]

armðþ
[armþ] n.w.f. poverty. [armiþō (st.f.)]

arvæða
[arveða] n.w.m. (male) worker, labourer. [arvæðþ + a]

arvæðastra
[arveðastra] n.w.f. (female) worker, labourer. [arvæðþ + (a)stra]

arvæðɴ
[arveðan] v.i. to work, to toil, to labour. Synonyms: vercɴ. Arvæðɴ has the sense of work that needs to be done, while vercɴ has the implication of a project (such as a work of art or literature). [arbaiþjan]

arvæðþ
[arveþ] n.w.n. work, travail, labour. [arbaiþiz (st.f.)]

arvɴ
[arvan] n.w.m. orphan (male). [arbōn (w.m.)]

asc [ask] n.st.m. ash (tree), Fraxinus spp. [askaz (st.m.)]

asca
[aska] n.w.n. ash, cinder. [askōn (w.f.)]

aspa
[aspa] n.w.f. aspen, poplar, Populus spp. [aspōn (w.f.)]

at
[at] prp. at, to, towards. [at]

at
[at] prp. to (infinitive marker). [at]

avf-
[af-] pfx. off, from. [ab-, aƀ- < IE apó]

avf
[af] adv. off. [aba]

avf
[af] n.st.m. paternal grandfather. [awōn (st.m.)]

avf ōc an
[af óc an] adv. off and on, now and then, occasionally.

avf·arvæðɴ
[afarveðan] v.t. to work off (as a debt). [avf + arveðɴ]

avf·æqsɴ
[afewksen] v.t. to axe off, to chop off, to hack off. [avf + æqsɴ]

avf·ændɴ
[afenden] v.t. to bring to an end, to finish off. [avf + ændɴ]

avf·benðɴ
[afbenðan] v.t. to tie off, to bind. Class 3 strong verb: conj. like benðɴ. [avf + benðɴ]

avf·bītɴ
[afbítan] v.t. to bite off. Class 1 strong verb: conj. like bītɴ. [avf + bītɴ]

avf·blændɴ
[afblenden] v.i. to fade. Class 7 strong verb assimilated into class 3: conj. like blændɴ. [avf + blændɴ]

avf·brecɴ
[afbrekan] v.t. to break off. Class 3 strong verb: conj. like brecɴ. [avf + brecɴ]

avf·bȳln
[afbýl(a)n] v.t. to boil off, to cook down, to reduce a liquid through cooking. [avf + bȳln]

avf·caʒɴ
[afkawgun] v.t. to chew off. [avf + caʒɴ]

avf·daʒɴ
[afdawgun] v.i. to die off. Class 6 strong verb: conj. like daʒɴ. [avf + daʒɴ]

avf·dōn
[afdón] v.t. to turn off (a light, appliance, &c.). [avf + dōn]

avf·drītɴ
[afdrítan] v.t. to go away, to piss off. Class 1 strong verb: conj. like drītɴ. Slightly vulgar. “Drīt avf!” has approximately the same connotation as “Piss off!” in English. [avf + drītɴ]

avf·fal
ɴ [affalan] v.i. to fall off. Class 6 strong verb: conj. like falɴ. [avf + falɴ]

avf·farn
[affar(a)n] v.i. to depart, to go off, to travel. Class 6 strong verb: conj. like farn. Synonyms: avfgaŋɴ. [avf + farn]

avf·gaŋɴ
[afgangan] v.i. to depart, to go off. Synonyms: avfgān, avfgāhɴ. Class 7 strong verb: conj. like gaŋɴ. Like avffarn, but avfgaŋɴ has a more local implication. Avffarn has the connotation of driving or traveling by means other than ones own feet. [avf + gaŋɴ]

avf·gāhɴ
[afgáhan] v.i. =avfgaŋɴ [avf + gāhɴ]

avf·gān
[afgán] v.i. =avfgaŋɴ [avf + gān]

avf·gærʒɴ
[afgergun] v.t. to decide. Synonyms: baslȳtɴ. [avf + gærʒɴ]

avf·gevɴ
[afgevan] v.i. to give off, to emit. Class 5 strong verb: conj. like gevɴ. [avf + gevɴ]

avf·hāhɴ
[afháhan] v.i. to depend (on). Class 7 strong verb: conj. like hāhɴ. Used with an. [avf + hāhɴ]
Þat hǣhþ anþм tala avf. That depends on the price.

avfhǣhag
[afhéhag] adj. dependant. Used with an. [from hāhɴ]
Þat ærðþ anþм tala avfhǣhag. That is dependant on the price.

avf·nemɴ
[afneman] v.t. to take off, to remove. Class 4 strong verb: conj. like nemɴ. [avf + nemɴ]

avf·rȳmɴ
[afrýman] v.t. to clean off, to clear. See hrȳðɴ. Class 2 strong verb: conj. like rȳmɴ. [avf + rȳmɴ]

avf·scacɴ
[afskakan] v.t. to shake off. Class 6 strong verb: conj. like scacɴ. [avf + scacɴ]

avf·scavɴ
[afskavan] v.t. to shave off. Class 6 strong verb: conj. like scavɴ. [avf + scavɴ]

avf·scern
[afsker(a)n] v.t. to cut off, to shear off. Class 4 strong verb: conj. like scern. [avf + scern]

avfscrutӿ
[afskrutang] n.w.f. abbreviation. [avfscrut(ɴ) + ӿ]

avf·scrᵫtnasc
(scrᵫtɴ sec avf) [afskrytnask (skrytan sek af)] v.r. to shorten, to become shorter. [avf + scrᵫtɴ + sec]

avf·scrᵫtnɴ
[afskrytnan] v.t. to shorten, to become shorter. [avf + scrᵫtnɴ]

avf·scrᵫtɴ
[afskrytan] v.t. to shorten, to abbreviate. [avf + scrᵫtɴ]

avf·snīðɴ
[afsníðan] v.t. to cut off, to snip off. Class 1: conj. like snīðɴ. [avf + snīðɴ]

avf·stīgɴ
[afstígan] v.i. to step off, to climb off. Class 1: conj. like stīgɴ. [avf + stīgɴ]

avf·taln
[aftal(a)n] v.t. to pay off (debt). Class 6: conj. like taln. [avf + taln]

avʌ
[aval] n.st.n. power, might. [aƀalaz (st.m.)]