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B b


ba-
[ba-] pfx. be-, by. Prefix form of preposition . Please note that when in combination with a noun, adjective, or verb, this syllable is unstressed and the a is pronounced as a schwa. See appdx i§2a3. [bi < IE bʰi]

bac [bak] n.w.n. back. [bakam (w.n.)]

baca [baka] n.w.m. male baker.

baca [baka] n.w.n. bacon. [bakōn (w.n.)]

bacɴ [bakan] v.t. to bake. [bak(k)an]

bacstra [bakstra] n.w.f. female baker.

bacsȳwl [baksýwl] n.w.n. spine, backbone, spinal column. [bac + sȳwl]

badrȳgɴ [badrýgan] v.t. to deceive, to mislead. [bidreugan]

baðnasc [baðnask] (baðɴ sec) v.r. to bathe (oneself).

baðɴ [baðan] v.t. to bathe.

baðþ [baþ] n.w.n. bath. [baþam (st.n.)]

bafaln [bafaln] v.t. to please, to make happy. Class 7: conj. like faln.

bafelha [bafelha] n.w.m. commander, leader.

bafelhɴ [bafelhan] v.t. to command, to order. [(bi)felhan]

bafelhӿ [bafelhang] n.w.f. command, order, decree.

bafelhstra [bafelhstra] n.w.f. commander, leader.

bagenɴ [bagenan] v.i. to begin, to commence, to start. The transitive verb is genɴ. [(bi)gennan]

baʒð [bawgð] n.w.f. building, structure. [from baʒɴ]

baʒм [bawgum] n.st.n. tree. See notes at treʒ. [ba(u)gmaz]

baʒмcōl [bawgumkól] n.st.n. broccoli. Literally “tree cabbage.” [baʒм + cōl]

baʒɴ [bawgun] v.i. to live, to dwell; to build, to construct. Originally a weak verb that has been assimilated into class 6. [bawjan]

bal [bal] n.w.n. ball, sphere. [ballaz (st.m.)]

balǣðɴ [baléðan] v.t. to insult, to offend, to disparage.

balǣðþ [baléþ] n.w.n. insult, offense.

balðþ [balþ] adj. bold, courageous, impressive, quick, adroit. [balþa]

balg [balg] n.st.n. bag, sac; luggage, baggage (usually plural). [balgiz (st.m.)]

balīvɴ [balívan] v.i. to stay behind, to remain. [bi+leiban]

balvf [balf] adj. bad, evil. Synonyms: arg, grem, sleht, slem, ᵫvʌ, var. [balwa]

bambū [bambú] n.w.n. bamboo. [borrowed, origin uncertain]

ban [ban] n.w.n. bane. [banan (w.m.)]

banāna [banána] n.w.n. banana. [borrowed, Wolof banana]

banðþ [banþ] n.st.n. band, binding, fetter, a cord used to bind. Synonyms: rǣp, streŋ, senaw, snūr. [bandam (st.m.), from benðɴ]

banɴ [banan] v.t. to ban, to exile, to cast out. Originally a class 7 verb assimilated into class 6. [bannan]    [table]

banst [banst] n.st.n. barn. [banstiz (st.m.)]

baŋc [bank] n.st.n. bench. [bankiz (st.m.)]

baŋca [banka] n.w.n. bank, edge (of a water source). Synonyms: ōvʀ. [bankōn (w.m.)]

bar- [bar-] pfx.  very, greatly. [bar- or bur- (Ø-grade form) from IE bʰor/bʰr̥]

bar [bar] adj. bare, nakèd, nude; plain, unornamented. Synonyms: blōðþ, naqad. [baza]

barc [bark] n.w.n. bark (of a tree). [barkuz (st.m.)]

barc [bark] n.w.n. bark (of a dog). [from barkjan]

barðþ [barþ] n.st.m. beard. [bardam (st.n.), bardaz (st.m.)]

barn [barn] n.w.n. child. See cenðþ for notes. Synonyms: cenðþ, cund. [barnam (st.n.)]

barnesc [barnesk] adj. childish, childlike. [barniska]

bascehɴ [baskehan] v.i. to happen, to occur. Synonyms: fūrqumɴ, scehɴ, tīmɴ. Used interchangeably with scehɴ. [biskehan]

bascrīvɴ [baskrívan] v.t. to describe. Class 1: conj. like scrīvɴ.

bascrīvӿ [baskrivang] n.w.f. description.

baslȳtɴ [baslýtan] v.t. to decide. Also avfgærʒɴ. Class 2: conj. like slȳtɴ. [bisleutan]

baslȳtӿ [baslýtang] n.w.f. decision.

basœ̄hɴ [basøhan] v.t. to visit, to pay a visit. Class X: conj. like sœ̄hɴ.

basunðrɴ [basunðran] v.i. to specialize.

basunðrӿ [basunðrang] n.w.f specialization.

basunðʀ [basunðar] adj. special, unique, “set apart.” [(bi)sundara]

bat [bat] adj.st. =gōd. Archaic. Bat is the root of the comparative and superlative forms of gōd: bat → bætʀ → bætast (ev. bæst), but has largely fallen out of use except for a few remaining idioms.

bataln [bataln] v.t. to pay, to pay for. Class 6: conj. like taln.

batalvagɴ [batalvagan] n.w.n. cab, taxi. Lit: “Pay-car.” [batal+vagɴ]

batǣcnɴ [batécnan] v.t. to teach, to instruct. Class X: conj. like tǣcnɴ.

baþȳdɴ [baþýdan] v.t. to mean, to have the meaning of.

bāg [bág] adj. stubborn, resistant, obstructive, hindering. [bēga]

bāg [bág] n.st.n. fight, quarrel, argument, altercation, struggle; resistance, obstruction. Derivations: evɴbāg. [bēgaz (st.m.)]

bāl [bál] n.st.n. pyre. [bēlam (st.n.)]

bæd [bed] n.w.n. bed. [badjaz (st.m.)]

bælt [belt] n.w.n. belt. Synonyms: grᵫðʌ. [baltjaz (st.m.)]

bær [ber] n.w.n. berry. [bazjam (st.n.)]

bærva [berva] n.w.n. barrow, cart. [barwjōn (w.f.), from bern]

bæst [best] sup. adj. best. Sup. of gōd. Originally bætast, sup. of bat, having the same meaning, but the root adjective has fallen out of use in the modern language.

bætʀ [betar] comp. adj. better. Comp. of gōd. Originally comp. of bat, having the same meaning, but the root adjective has fallen out of use in the modern language.

bǣðм [béðam] adj. to both. Dative form of the dual distributive pronoun. See Appdx. ii§3c for declension. See bōðþ.

bǣðɴ [béðan] adj. both. Accusative masculine form of the dual distributive pronoun. See Appdx. ii§3c for declension. See bōðþ, bǣðþ.

bǣðþ [béþ] adj. both. Nominative masculine form of the dual distributive pronoun. See Appdx. ii§3c for declension. See bōðþ.

bǣg [bég] adj. of both. Genitive form of the dual distributive pronoun. See Appdx. ii§3c for declension. See bōðþ.

bǣgɴ [bégan] v.i. to resist, to struggle, to obstruct, to impede. Derivations: ūtfāhx·bǣgɴ. [bēgan]

bǣn [bén] n.w.n. bone; leg-bone; leg. Synonyms: cnuc, læg. [bainaz (st.m.)]

bǣngrenðþ [béngrenþ] n.w.n. skeleton. [bǣn + grenðþ]

bǣr [bér] n.w.m. boar. [bairaz (st.m.)]

bǣt [bét] n.w.n. boat. [baitaz (st.m.)]

beca [beka] n.w.f. bitch, mother dog. This refers specifically to a female dog who is caring for puppies. Synonyms: hᵫndena. [bekkjōn (w.f.)]

bedɴ [bedan] v.t. to bid, to beg, to ask, to plead, to request. [bedjan]

beðʌ [beðal] n.w.n. hatchet, small axe. [biþlam (st.n.)]

beʒa [bewgwa] n.w.n. grain, cereal. [bewwu (w.n.)]

belðþ [belþ] n.w.n. picture, image. [bilaþjam (st.n.)]

belgɴ [belgan] v.i. to become angry, to anger, to get ones hackles up. [belgan]

belhɴ [belhan] v.i. to belch. Class 3 by assimilation. [belkjan]

beln [beln] n.w.n. henbane, Hyoscyamus niger. [belunōn (w.f.)]

benðɴ [benðan] v.t. to bind, to tie (up). [bendan]

ber [ber] n.w.n. barley. [bar(i)z (st.n.)]

berca [berka] n.w.f. birch (tree), Betula spp. [berkjōn (w.f.)]

bercɴ [berkan] v.i. to bark. [berkan]

berg [berg] n.w.n. mountain. [bergaz (st.m.)]

bergblīðþ [bergblíþ] n.w.n. oregano, Origanum vulgare. [berg + blīðþ, from translation of greek ὀρίγανον from ὄρος γανοῦσθαι]

bergɴ [bergan] v.t. to protect. [bergan]

bern [bern] v.t. to bear, to carry, to give birth to. [beran]

berna [berna] n.w.m. bear. [bernjōn (w.m.)]

bernena [bernena] n.w.f. shebear, bear.

besм [besam] n.st.n. broom. Synonyms: swōvʌ. [bes(a)mōn (w.m.)]

beta [beta] n.w.n. little, bit. [bitōn (w.m.)]

betcɴ [betcen] n.w.n. a little bit, somewhat. Preceded by ænt. Synonyms: lītʌ.

betʀ [betar] adj. bitter. [bitra]

bevɴ [bevan] v.i. to shake, to tremble, to shudder, to quiver. [bibōn]

bevʀ [bevar] n.w.n. beaver. [beb(a)ruz (st.m.)]

[bí] prp. by, with, at the home of; by way of. Synonyms: naɧ. [bī]

bīa [bía] n.w.f. bee. [biōn (w.f.)]

bīavacs [bíavaks] n.w.n. beeswax. [bīa + vacs]

bīðɴ [bíðan] v.t. to await, to expect, to wait for. [beidan]

bītmᵫig [bítmyig] n.w.n. mosquito, or other biting insect. [bīt + mᵫig]

bītɴ [bítan] v.t. to bite. [beitan]

blac [blak] adj. black. Synonyms: svarðþ; dark. Synonyms: merq; dirty, covered with earth. Synonyms: blæcag. [blakka]

blac [blak] n.st.n. earth, dirt, mud, clay. Synonyms: erðþ. [blakam (st.n.), blakaz (st.m.)]

blacbær [blakber] n.w.n. blackberry, Rubus spp. [blac + bær]

blaðþ [blaþ] n.st.n. blade, leaf, sheet (of paper). Synonyms: lōvf. [bladam (st.n.)]

blaðþcrūðþ [blaþcrúþ] n.st.n. collard greens. [blaðþ + crūðþ]

bladra [bladra] n.w.n. bladder. [bladrōn (w.f.)]

blaʒɴ [blawgun] v.i. to blow (as wind, storm). Class 7 verb assimilated into class 6. Synonyms: blārɴ. [blēwwan]

blaw [blaw] adj. blue. [blēwa (blēw-a, not blē-wa)]

blawber [blawber] n.w.n. blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus. [blaw + ber]

blawcōl [blawkól] n.st.n. red cabbage. Literally “blue cabbage,” cf. german Blaukraut. [blaw + cōl]

blārn [blárn] v.i. to blow, to exhale. Synonyms: blaʒɴ. [blēsan]

blæcag [blekag] adj. =blac. [from blac]

blæcʀ [blekar] n.w.n. ink. [from blac]

blæcʀsteft [blekarsteft] n.w.n. (ink) pen. Synonyms: pen. [blæcʀ + steft]

blæʒ [blewg] n.w.n. sheet, cloth, blanket. Synonyms: dōc, lacɴ, scōt. [blagwjōn (w.f.)]

blændɴ [blenden] v.t. to mix, to blend. Originally a str. cl. 7 verb assimilated into class 3, but retains æ in the orthography and a in the past participle. [blandjan]

blǣc [blék] adj. pale, pallid, bleached out, faded. [blaikja]

blǣc [blék] n.w.n. bleach. [blaikjōn (w.f.)]

blecɴ [blekan] v.t. to blink (ones eyes). Synonyms: breƕɴ.[blikjan]

blecsм [bleksam] n.w.n. lightning. [bliksmōn (w.m.)]

blecsмsverðþ [bleksamsverþ] n.w.n. lightning bolt. [blecsм + sverðþ]

blenðþ [blenþ] adj. blind. [blenda]

blenðnɴ [blenðnan] v.i. to be blind, to become blind.

blenðɴ [blendan] v.t. to blind, to make blind. Conjugation is regular. [blendnōn]

blīcɴ [blíkan] v.i. to shimmer, to shine, to glimmer, to sparkle. [bleikan]

blīðþ [blíþ] adj. happy, joyous; friendly, nice. Synonyms: glad, tǣt, wunðag. [bleiþa]

blīðþmānðþ [blíþmanþ] n.w.m. march; pisces. Traditional name for fūrōstʀ. [blīðþ + mānðþ]

blīvf [blíf] n.w.n. lead (Pb). [blīwam (st.n.)]

blīvfsteft [blífsteft] n.w.n. pencil. [blīvf + steft]

blōða [blóða] adv. only, just, simply. [blauþa]

blōðþ [blóþ] adj. alone, single. [blauþa]

blōðþ [blóþ] adj. bare, nakèd. Synonyms: alǣn, bar, naqad. [blauþa]

blōðþ [blóþ] n.st.n. blood. [blōþam (st.n.)]

blōðþgaŋ [blóþgang] n.st.n. blood vessel, vein, artery. Derivations: enðrablōðþgaŋ, ūtþrablōðþgaŋ. [blōðþ + gaŋ]

blōðþvetscap [blóþvetskap] n.w.n. hæmatology. [blōðþ + vetscap]

blōm [blóm] n.st.f. bloom, flower. Derivations: nagʌblōm. [blōmam (st.n.)]

blōn [blón] v.i. to bloom, to blossom; to burst forth, to well up. Synonyms: blœ̄mɴ. [blōan]

blōt [blót] n.w.n. sacrifice, offering. [blō(s)t(r)am (st.n.)]

blōtmānðþ [blótmánþ] n.w.m. november; scorpio. Traditional name for cȳlŋ.

blōtɴ [blótan] v.t. to sacrifice, to offer up. Synonyms: swōn. [blōtan]

blœ̄ðag [bløðag] adj. bloody. [from blōðþ]

blœ̄ðnɴ [bløðnan] v.t. to bleed, to cause to bleed. [from blōðþ]

blœ̄ðɴ [bløðan] v.t. to denude, to strip, to unclothe, to undress.

blœ̄ðɴ [bløðan] v.t. to simplify.

blœ̄ðɴ [bløðan] v.i. to bleed. [from blōðþ]

blœ̄mɴ [bløman] v.i. to bloom. Synonyms: blōn. [from blōm]

blunðþ [blunþ] adj. blonde. [blunda]

blȳʒɴ [blýwgun] v.t. to make or dye a dark colour. [bleuwan]

bnōʒɴ [bnógun] v.t. to rub. [b(i)nowwan]

bōc [bók] n.st.n. book. [bōkam (st.n.), bōkiz (st.f.)]

bōchūs [bókhús] n.st.n. library. [bōc + hūs]

bōcɴ [bókan] n.w.n. letter, character, symbol. Derivations: frāgabōcɴ. [bauknam (st.n.)]

bōcɴræɧ [bókanrewh] n.w.n. alphabet. [bōcɴ + ræɧ]

bōðþ [bóþ] adj., adv. both. Nominative and accusative feminine and neuter forms of the dual distributive pronoun. Also serves as the adverbial form. See Appdx. ii§3c for declension. [ba þa, bai þaiz]

bōn [bón] n.st.n. bean. Derivations: caɧbōn, hehʌbōn, nȳrbōn, svarða bœ̄nʀ. [baunōn (st.f.)]

bōn [bón] n.st.n. gift, offering, boon. [bōniz (st.f.)]

bōnqeðþ [bónkweþ] n.w.n. prayer. [bōn + qeðþ]

bōsм [bósam] n.w.f. breast, bosom. [bōsmaz (st.m.)]

bōt [bót] n.st.n. repair, atomement, redress, improvement. [bōtō (st.f.), bōtiz (st.f.)?]

bœ̄ca(baʒм) [bøkabawgum] n.w.n. beech (tree). [bōkjōn (st.f.)]

bœ̄l [bøl] n.w.n. welt, lump, bruise. [bauljōn (w.f.)]

bœ̄tɴ [bøtan] v.t. to repair, to mend; to atone, to redress, to make up for; to improve, to amend. [bōtjan]

bracsм [braksam] n.w.n. bream, carp (a fish). [brahsmaz (st.m.), brahs(in/j)ō (st.f.)]

bragɴ [bragan] n.w.n. brain. Synonyms: hern. [bragnam (st.n.)]

bragɴscal [braganskal] n.w.n. skull. [bragɴ + scal]

brahtм [brahtam] n.st.n. noise, racket, hubbub. Synonyms: swōg, wōhм. [braht(um)az (st.m.), brahtiz (st.f.)]

brāðɴ [bráðan] v.t. to roast. [st.cl.7 brēdan]

brāðþ [bráþ] n.w.n. breath. Synonyms: anðм. [brēþ(m)az, brēþiz (st.m.)]

bræmbʌ [brembal] n.w.n. bramble. [bram(b)ila (w.n?)]

brǣðɴ [breðan] v.i. to breathe. Synonyms: anɴ. [brēþ(mj)an]

brecɴ [brekan] v.t. to break. A Class 5 verb that has been assimilated into Class 3. Derivations: sunðʀ·brecɴ. [brekan]

breƕɴ [brewhun] v.t. to blink, to wink. Synonyms: blecɴ. [brehwan]

breht [breht] adj. bright, clear. Synonyms: lᵫht. [berhta]

bremɴ [breman] v.i. to howl, to bellow. Synonyms: hlōn, rȳtɴ, þȳtɴ. [bremman]

brenhel [brenhel] n.w.n. hell. In the judæ̈ochristian sense of a place of torture for the punishment of sins. See hel. [bren + hel]

brenɴ [brenan] v.t. to burn. While this class 3 verb often takes on weak endings in other germanic languages, the pure strong endings are retained (or extrapolated). [brennan]

breŋca [brenka] n.w.n. brink, cliff, precipice. [brenkōn (w.f.)]

breŋɴ [brengan] v.t. to bring. [brengan]

brestɴ [brestan] v.i. to burst, to explode. [berstan, brestan]

brestmæh [brestmeh] n.w.n. popcorn. [brest + mæh]

brǣðþ [bréþ] adj. wide, broad. [braida]

brǣðþ [bréþ] n.w.f. width, breadth. [braidiþō (st.f.)]

brǣðɴ [bréðan] v.t. to broaden, to widen. [braidēn]

brōc [bróc] n.st.n/f. brook, stream. Synonyms: strōm. [brōkam (st.n.), brōkaz (st.m.)]

brōðʀ [bróðar] n.st.m. brother. See appdx. v. [brōþar (w.m.)]

brōðʀbrūd [bróðarbrúd] n.w.f. brother’s wife, sister-in-law. See appdx. v. [brōðʀ + brūd]

brōðʀgum [bróðargum] n.w.m. brother’s husband, brother-in-law. See appdx. v. [brōðʀ + gum]

brōðþ [bróþ] n.w.n. bread. [braudam (st.m.)]

brœ̄ðrӿ [brøðrang] n.w.m. paternal male cousin; cousin. This may be used in a general sense to refer to cousins of either gender, usually in a plural, collective manner. See appdx. v. [brōþaringaz (st.m.)]

brœ̄ðrӿena [brødrangena] n.w.f. paternal female cousin. See appdx. v. [brœ̄ðrx + ena]

bruðþ [bruþ] n.w.n. table. [burdam (st.n.)]

brug [brug] n.w.n. town, village, borough. Synonyms: þrup. [burgaz (st.f.)]

brugɴ [brugan] v.t. to borrow. [burgēn]

brun [brun] n.w.n. well. Synonyms: qel. [brunnōn (w.m.)]

brun [brun] adj. born.

brunt
[brunt] n.w.n. new-born, baby, infant. [burnata from bern]

brūc [brúk] n.w.n. use, purpose. Synonyms: nōt. [brūkiz (st.m.)]

brūcfʌ [brúkfal] adj. useful.

brūclōs [brúklós] adj. useless.

brūcɴ [brúkan] v.t. to use. A normalized weak verb; zero-grade form of and used interchangeably with its Class 2 strong verb counterpart brȳcɴ. See nȳtɴ. While brūcɴ and nȳtɴ both mean “to use”, brūcɴ has a more utilitarian connotation, while nȳtɴ means not only “to use” but also “to enjoy”. [brūkan, breukan (with Ø-grade)]

brūðþ [brúþ] n.w.f. bride, wife, spouse. [brūdiz (st.f.)]

brūðþbrōðʀ [brúþbróðar] n.st.m. brother-in-law, wife’s brother. See appdx. v. [brūd + brōðʀ]

brūðþfaðʀ [brúþfaðar] n.st.m. father-in-law, wife’s father. See appdx. v. [brūd + faðʀ]

brūðþfʀbendӿ [brúþfarbendang] n.w.f. wedding. [brūd + fʀ + bendx]

brūðþgum [brúþgum] n.w.m. husband, bridegroom, spouse. When used in the plural, this can refer to spouses of either gender, usually used in a plural, collective manner. See appdx. v. [brūd + gum]

brūðþmōðʀ [brúþmóðar] n.st.f. mother-in-law, wife’s mother. See appdx. v. [brūd + mōðʀ]

brūðþsvestʀ [brúþsvestar] n.w.f. sister-in-law, wife’s sister. See appdx. v. [brūd + svestʀ]

brūʒ [brúg] n.w.n. brow. Derivations: ōgɴbrūʒ. [brūwō (w.f.)]

brūn [brún] adj. brown. [brūna]

brūnt sahʀ [brúnt sahar] n.w.n. brown sugar.

brūnt vrīr [brúnt vrír] n.w.n. brown rice.

brᵫðþ [bryþ] n.w.f. birth. [buriþō, burþiz (st.f.) from bern]

brᵫðþdag [bryþdag] n.w.m. birthday. [brᵫþ + dag]

brᵫig [bryig] n.w.n. bridge. [brugjōn (w.f.)]

brᵫstʌ [brystal] n.w.n. bristle. [burstila (w.n.)]

brȳcɴ [brýkan] v.t. to use. A Class 2 strong verb with normalized weak zero-grade form brūcɴ (see). Synonyms: nȳtɴ. While brūcɴ and nȳtɴ both mean “to use”, brūcɴ has a more utilitarian connotation, while nȳtɴ means not only “to use” but also “to enjoy”. [brūkan, breukan (with Ø-grade)]

brȳðɴ [brýðan] v.i. to decay, to wither, to decompose; to crumble, to go to ruin, to collapse. [breuþan]

brȳʒɴ [brýwgun] v.t. to boil, to brew. Synonyms: bȳln, sȳðɴ. Brȳʒɴ and bȳln are transitive verbs, while sȳðɴ is intransitive. [breuwan]
Sī bȳr brōʒ. She brewed beer.
Hī vatɴ bȳlðþ. He boils the water.
Þet vatʀ sȳðþ. The water is boiling.

brȳst [brýst] n.w.n. breast, chest. [breustam (st.n.)]

brȳtɴ [brýtan] v.i. to break, to snap, to come apart; to bud, to burgeon. [breutan]

buca [buka] n.st.m. buck, male deer or goat. Synonyms: hōc, stǣg. [bukkōn (w.m.)]

bul [bul] n.w.m. bull. Synonyms: , stȳr. [bullōn (w.m.)]

buðм [buðam] n.w.n. floor, ground. Synonyms: flōr, grund, mulda. [buþmaz (st.m.)]

bugɴ [bugan] n.w.n. bow; something bent or curved. Synonyms: cruc. Derivatives:ælnbugɴ, regɴbugɴ. [bugōn (w.m.)]

būm [búm] n.w.n. boom, crash, loud noise. [onamotapoetic]

būmɴ [búman] v.i. to boom, to crash, to make a loud noise.

būr [búr] n.st.m. farmer. [b­ūraz (st.m.)]

būr [búr] n.w.n. bower, shelter. [būram (st.n.)]

bᵫigɴ [byigen] v.t. to buy, to purchase. Synonyms: cœ̄pɴ. [bugjan]

bȳðɴ [býðan] v.t. to offer, to invite. [beudan]

bȳgɴ [býgan] v.t. to bow, to bend, to curve. [beugan]

bȳln [býln] v.t. to boil. Class 2 by assimilation. Synonyms: brȳʒɴ, sȳðɴ. [buljan]

bȳr [býr] n.w.f. beer. [beuram, beuzam (st.n.)]

bȳrena [býrena] n.w.f. farmer, farmer’s wife. [būr + ena]